Harlequin Ichthyosis (Rare baby syndrome)

For those who are pregnant please do not play it.. Hehe..


Quoted from Wikipedia..

Harlequin-type ichthyosis (also harlequin ichthyosis, ichthyosis congenita, or keratosis diffusa fetalis), a skin disease, is the most severe form of congenital ichthyosis, characterized by a thickening of the keratin layer in fetal human skin. In sufferers of the disease, the skin contains massive, diamond-shaped scales, and tends to give off a reddish color. In addition, the eyes, ears, mouth, and other appendages may be abnormally contracted. The scaly keratin greatly limits the child’s movement. Because the skin is cracked where normal skin would fold, it is easily pregnable by bacteria and other contaminants, resulting in serious risk of fatal infection.

Sufferers are known as harlequin fetuses, harlequin babies, or harlequins.

The harlequin-type designation comes from both the baby’s apparent facial expression and the diamond-shape of the scales (resembling the costume of Arlecchino), which are caused by severe hyperkeratosis. The disease can be diagnosed in the uterus by way of fetal skin biopsy or by morphologic analysis of amniotic fluid cells obtained by amniocentesis. In addition, doctors can now usually recognize common features of the disease through ultrasound, and follow up with 3D ultrasound can diagnose the condition.

What genes are related to harlequin ichthyosis?

Mutations in the ABCA12 gene cause harlequin ichthyosis.

The ABCA12 gene makes a protein that is essential for the normal development of skin cells. This protein appears to play a major role in the transport of lipids (fats) in the outermost layer of skin (the epidermis). Some mutations in the ABCA12 gene prevent the cell from making any ABCA12 protein. Other mutations lead to the production of an abnormally small version of the protein that cannot transport lipids properly. The loss of functional ABCA12 protein disrupts the normal development of the epidermis, preventing the skin from forming an effective barrier and resulting in the hard, thick scales characteristic of harlequin ichthyosis.

How do people inherit harlequin ichthyosis?

This condition is likely inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Most often, the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

 

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About LWJ

A doctor in Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru (HSAJB).